More than Olympics, championships programming are described here. These are competitions that are performed individually or by small teams of 2 to 4 people. These specify a problem to be solved and we, as programmers, we need to develop their solution. Sometimes it takes into account only the time taken to resolve the problems, and some of them also the efficiency of the solution. They usually give enough money and / or gifts, although it has much merit.
For those wise, I propose the ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, (ACM-ICPC). This competition, which dates from 1974, is organized every year for universities. Indeed, since 1997 it hasn’t won any U.S. University (ie, from which became popular internationally). Here you can see the questions: http://icpc.baylor.edu/info/Problem+Resources
Another event also interesting is the Tuenti Programming Challenge, whose second edition ended recently. The international ambit is lower, but some exercises are complicated. It’s more like a marathon, because its 20 questions will take time: https://contest.tuenti.net/Questions
Meanwhile, Google also has its own competition for programmers: the Google Code Jam. You can find more information here: http://code.google.com/codejam/
Facebook also has one, called The Facebook Hacker Cup, which despite the name is more focused on programming and not hacking: http://www.facebook.com/hackercup/
In addition, many countries organize their own. However, if you prove yourself, these links have enough exercises of programming ;-)